Glutathione (GSH) derives from cysteine and plays a key role in redox status. GSH synthesis is determined mainly by cysteine availability and gamma-glutamate cysteine ligase (gammaGCL) activity. Because PPARalpha activation is known to control the metabolism of certain amino acids, GSH synthesis from cysteine and related metabolisms were explored in wild-type (WT) and PPARalpha-null (KO) mice, fed diets containing either saturated (COCO diet) or 18 : 3 n-3, LIN diet. In mice fed the COCO diet, but not in those fed the LIN diet, PPARalpha deficiency enhanced hepatic GSH content and gammaGCL activity, superoxide dismutase 2 mRNA levels, and plasma uric acid concentration, suggesting an oxidative stress. In addition, in WT mice, the LIN diet increased the hepatic GSH pool, without effect on gammaGCL activity, or change in target gene expression, which rules out a direct effect of PPARalpha. This suggests that dietary 18 : 3 n-3 may regulate GSH metabolism and thus mitigate the deleterious effects of PPARalpha deficiency on redox status, without direct PPARalpha activation.